Aquarium Plants


Bacopa Profile
Scientific name Bacopa  
Common name Bacopa
Temperature Between 15ºC to 30ºC
pH Between 6 and 8
Difficulty level Easy. Great for beginners
Growth-height 50 centimeters or more


Bacopa are frequently aquatic, erect or prostrate herbs , generally dotted-glandular. They have opposite leaves, inserted directly to the stem or branch, or indistinctly with petioles.
It is a popular plant for freshwater aquariums, due to its ability to grow in water.

They can also develop and grow in slightly brackish water. Propagation is usually done through fragments of the plant called cuttings.


It is a plant with herbaceous characteristics , durable over time and underwater. The Bacopa is native to different countries in Asia, frequently in the Southeast, in swampy areas.

Currently this plant is cultivated in other countries, mainly tropical and subtropical areas. In the same way, in places that resemble its natural habitat it is possible to find it, that is, as in aquariums or swampy gardens.
The vegetative stems are smooth without the presence of hairs (glabrous), creeping and with roots that form dense meadows in the form of grass.

Instead, fertile stems are upward or erect. Its measurements can reach between 50 and 60 cm in height.
Its leaves are voluminous, fleshy, oval and elongated , light green in color, and about 2 cm long.
The flowers have a white-violet color with 4 or 5 petals, they are isolated in the axil of the leaves, only one in each node. The fruits have a 4 to 6mm ovoid capsule shape.

Bacopa types

In nature we can find different types of Bacopa, some really popular in aquarium hobbies:

Bacopa Monnieri

It is a traditional plant of Indian culture and «traditional medicine» known as Ayurvedic. Traditionally this medicine has been used to treat asthma and epilepsy as well.

This plant has a great ability to grow in water, which makes it ideal and very popular in aquariums . Its leaves are oblanceolate.

In countries such as India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, China, Taiwan, Vietnam, this plant is seen growing in swampy areas. It can also be found in Florida and other southern US states.

Bacopa Caroliniana

It is a plant that has a fleshy stem, is vigorous and energetic, aquatic, although it can also grow on land.

The Bacopa Caroliniana can grow to about half a meter in height and even more.

Of nature, in its aerial part it has opposite leaves, seated, slightly voluminous and fleshy, with a lanceolate oval shape and apple green or yellowish green color.
The flowers emerge on the axils of the leaves. These flowers have very characteristic pinkish-violet or blue tones.

Bacopa Caroliniana is an aquatic or marsh plant with a stem. It belongs to the scrofulariaceae family.

This type of plant comprises around 2,500 species with herbaceous or shrubby characteristics, which can measure around half a meter in height and even more.

Bacopa Myriophylloides

Bacopa Myriophylloides is one of the most unique aquatic species of Bacopa . Its thin leaves make it look like a member of the genus Myriophyllum, but it is still a Bacopa.

This type of Bacopa Myriophylloides prefers a lighting level in the mid-range , however it can tolerate high lighting.

Ideally, you should use Bacopa myriophylloides to add a different texture to your aquarium plants.

It has its origin in South America. In the aquarium it should be placed in the rear position , with a minimum temperature of 22ºC and a maximum temperature of 28ºC.

They support medium and high light, with a water hardness between soft and medium.

Bacopa properties

Although we are talking about Bacopa here, as an aquarium plant, it does not hurt to talk about the properties that have made it one of the most famous plants for alternative medicinal treatments.

Contributes to improving mental functions

Helps improve memory, concentration and learning.

Studies carried out show this. Thanks to the substances it contains and that allow actively stimulate the enzymes that restore synaptic activity, a mechanism without which the nervous system could not function and optimizes the transmission of the nerve impulse in the brain

Works as an Antioxidant

Supports and protects astrocytes and fibroblasts against toxins such as glutamate, aluminum, nitric oxide, and beta-amyloid protein.

It is an Adaptogen

One of the properties of Bacopa monnieri is the ability to improve the processes of adaptation to acute and chronic stress, modulating the activity of certain enzymes that participate in the response to stress.

It is a very useful plant for cases of anxiety and depression.

Contributes to improve memory capacities

The University of Australia conducted research to determine that the consumption of Bacopa has positive effects on learning, since it helps to minimize the percentage of forgetfulness of recently acquired information, which is located in the short-term visual and verbal memory.

Serves to reduce stress

According to nutrition experts, Bacopa can help improve the activity of certain types of enzymes that cause the response to stress ; which diminishes the effects of this emotion in the body.

Distribution and habitat

Native to North America, this plant can be found in the swampy areas of India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, China, Taiwan, and Vietnam .

Bacopa varieties can also be found in parts of Florida and other southern states in the United States, in areas where it is grown in humid conditions such as ponds and swampy gardens.

Bacopa species are found in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, particularly in the Americas.
A few Bacopas are considered weeds in their natural state. Most grow in humid environment conditions, although some like Bacopa Myriophylloides are fully aquatic.

Aquarium Conditions

Bacopa are beautiful stem plants, ideal for forming groups in the back or middle of the aquarium.

  • They need intense lighting
  • If we want to have it in perfect condition, it needs an extra contribution of CO2. See how to contribute Co2 to the aquarium
  • It prefers soft or medium waters.
  • Temperatures 18-28ºC.
  • The water level should be between pH: 5.0 to 8.0.
  • Medium water hardness.


Medium to very high. It requires intense lighting for its proper development.

Substrate Type

Without any kind of preference. It grows well in most soils, whether sandy or gravel.

It needs a nutritious substrate and a fertilizer with the necessary nutrients macros and micros, iron is essential.
It likes a nutritious substrate of fine or medium granulometry, in a substrate with large granules it will not root well. See substrate for aquariums .


Easy, they are amphibian or submerged plants, very resistant. It grows from 5 to 10 cm a month. Its multiplication is easily achieved by stem fragments (cuttings).

Flowering Period

From June to October, it is generally multiplied through cuttings.

Images and photos of Bacopa

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